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Gregg Herken 2023

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Brotherhood of the Bomb:
The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (Henry Holt and Co. 2002)

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[ NEW EVIDENCE: Website updated 2023 ]

The Author's suggested links:

Atomic Heritage Foundation

Vassiliev Notebooks

Venona Documents

Restricted Data: The Nuclear Secrecy Blog

Cold War International History Project

The Author's suggested readings:

Martin J. Sherwin & Kai Bird, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (Knopf, 2005)

Priscilla J. McMillan, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the Birth of the Modern Arms Race (Penguin Books, 2005)

John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, “J. Robert Oppenheimer: A Spy? No. But a Communist Once? Yes.” Washington Decoded, 11 Feb. 2012,

Cathryn Carson and David A. Hollinger, Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections, Berkeley Papers in History of Science, Vol. 21, University of California, Berkeley, 2005.

Gregg Herken, “Target Enormoz: Soviet Nuclear Espionage on the West Coast of the United States, 1942-1950,” Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, Summer 2009, pp. 68-90.

Cold War International History Project, “Was Oppenheimer a Soviet Spy?"  A Roundtable Discussion, The Wilson Center, Washington, D.C.

Harvey Klehr & John Earl Haynes, “Special Tasks and Sacred Secrets on Soviet Atomic Espionage,” Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 26, No. 5, October 2011, pp. 656-675.

John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (Yale University Press, 2009)

Allen Weinstein & Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—The Stalin Era (Random House, 1999)

Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner (eds.), VENONA: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957 (National Security Agency; Central Intelligence Agency, 1996)